Methods to treat, prevent osteoarthritis and osteoporosis
1. How many bones does the human body have?
Birth=300, as child develops some bones fuse together, example, skull
2. What is the largest bone in your body?
Femur, found in your thigh
3. What is the smallest bone in your body?
Stirrup, found in inner ear. Connects to hammer and anvil
4. Are male and female skeletons different? How?
Yes. Different elbow angle. Males have thicker, longer arms and legs. Females have wider pelvis bones and wider space within the pelvis for birth canal.
5. Can you strengthen weakened or thinned bones i.e. build bone mass?
Yes. We will learn how in this class.
6. Do bone cells regenerate?
Yes. New skeleton every 7 years due to cells burning and regenerating.
FUNCTION OF BONES:
The skeleton is the frame for the body, supporting body weight. The skeleton maintains body shape, protects vital organs, and provides a system of muscle levers that allow body movement. The skeleton contains bone marrow—in center of bones—which is the blood forming tissues of the body. Bone marrow stores needed minerals such as calcium and phosphorus and releases them into the blood for distribution and nutrition. Bones are connected to adjacent bones by joints are fixed as with the skull; hinged such as fingers and toes; ball and socket joints such as shoulders and hips. Joints are two bones connected, and the bones are covered with a smooth, slippery cushion called cartilage which protects the bone friction during movement. A tough capsule lined with synovial membrane produces a lubricating fluid making movement smooth. Ligaments surround and support each joint of the bones and prevent excessive movement. Muscles attach to bone on each side of a joint.
With age the protective coating, cartilage, wears thin, allowing two bones to rub together. The synovial membrane can also be torn, losing fluid. When this happens often inflammation attacks, causing swelling and pain. The stiffness experienced comes from the thinned cartilage and dryness. Both produce pain with movement. The body’s natural response to injury and infection plays an important role in healing. The immune system needs to be in best condition.
LATEST STATISTICS REPORT THAT NEARLY 40 MILLION PEOPLE REPORT SOME FORM OF ARTHRITIS.
Osteo arthritis can affect any joint but most prone are foot, finger, and hip, knee joints. It may appear in one joint or many. The disease is often mild but can become quite severe. Sometimes bone ends thicken, forming spurs which are bits of cartilage or bone float in the joint space. Joints can become mis shapened as result. Often this type is associated with degenerative disc disease which is the same process as joint decline where the cartilages between vertebrae thin and weaken with age and wear, causing back pain and weakness.
The so called ups and downs experienced with the disease are due to the presence or absence of inflammation.
At one time doctors advised arthritis patients to rest and avoid exercise. Doing nothing, however, results in weak, stiff joints, reduced mobility, and lost vitality. Now rheumatologists routinely recommend a balance of physical activity and rest. Exercise offers physical and psychological benefits that include overall fitness and well-being, and increased mobility which actually reduces pain.
Joints require motion to stay healthy. Range of motion, flexibility exercises every day even during one of the flare up or down times. Painful joints should be moved gently. Additionally strengthening and endurance activities are recommended in the absence of inflammation. For severe cases physician or physical therapy guidance is needed. Muscle strength is especially important because strong muscles better support joints. Several studies show that if one improves muscle strength he decreases pain. Joints will probably hurt during exercise, but should not be severe. Stop with resistance. Anti inflammatory drugs help to reduce inflammation local application of heat sometimes reduces joint pain. Ice packs have been used for swollen areas, especially with degenerative disc.
For severe cases surgical intervention such as joint replacement will be indicated. Today shoulders, knees, ankles, and hip joints are readily replaced.
Since the immune system is necessary to fight and prevent inflammation it is good to boost the immune system for assured maximum function. Our diets play an important role in this effort. Too much of our diets contain foods that have additives which actually weaken the immune system. Meats that have antibiotics added have created overwork for the immune system which results in resistance to drugs that should treat infections and inflammation. The body builds immunity by taking in small amounts of antibodies and attacking them. With antibiotics in our food the system is forever creating more antibodies, no wonder it wears down. A good steady intake of antioxidants will increase the effectiveness of the immune system and also rid the body of waste. Some foods such as pork have a natural tendency to irritate the immune system. Vitamin A. D. Calcium, helps to promote bone strength. Proteins help with muscle building.
Glucosimine Condritin is good for cartilage building. Torn or worn cartilage will rebuild if not completely gone with use of glucosomine.
Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break. If untreated this disease will be silent until sudden bone breakage alerts a person of the problem. Any bone can be affected but most frequently and of most concern are fractures of the hip and spine. These almost always require hospitalization and major surgery. It can impair a person’s ability to walk and may cause prolonged or permanent disability or even death. Spinal or vertebral fractures also have serious consequences, including loss of height, severe back pain, and deformity.
MILLIONS OF AMERICANS ARE AT RISK FOR OSTEOPOROSIS: WOMEN ARE FOUR TIMES MORE LIKELY THAN MEN TO DEVELOP THE DISESES BUT MEN ALSO SUFFER FROM THE DISEASE IN INCREASING NUMBERS.
Have bone density tests regularly after 40.
Engage in regular weight bearing exercise. Walking, dancing, stair-climbing.
Avoid smoking and consumption of alcohol.
Get the daily recommended amounts of calcium (100 to 1300 mg per day) and vitamin D (400 to 800 IU per day). Vitamin D is necessary to absorb calcium. Without Vitamin D you will not absorb the calcium from the food you eat so the body will pull it from your bones. Vitamin D comes from two sources: Through the skin following direct exposure to sunlight and from diet. Egg yolks and saltwater fish are healthy sources of natural vitamin D.
Soft drinks have been closely linked to risk of osteoporosis, especially diet drinks. They seem to deplete calcium which will thin bones due to the presence of phosphoric acid. Caffeine like salt can cause urinary loss of calcium. Tea however, has flavonoids that override this risk and actually does well as an antioxidant. Tests have shown that tea drinkers have less bone loss.
Post menopausal women must weigh the value of hormone therapy since loss of estrogen is a factor in bone development and thinning.
Salt can deplete calcium in the body so many doctors are now recommending a lowered salt intake and advising patients to limit processed foods and restaurant foods that are most often heavy with salt. The isoflavones in soy products have shone protection against bone loss in animal tests.
Increased body mass helps protect against osteoporosis. People who lose large amount of weight need to take precautions to eat properly and also do weight-bearing exercises to decrease the risk.
IMPORTANT TO KNOW IS THAT BONE MASS CAN INCREASE. BY FOLLOWING THESE RECOMMENDATIONS YOU CAN BOTH PREVENT AND TREAT OSTEOPOROSIS.
Whole grains and foods without preservatives and additives with a daily program of fresh air and exercise , immune boosting antioxidant rich foods and calcium, Vitamin D will work. THOUGHT: Dark chocolate is a very rich antioxidant. Have some tea and dark chocolate—no sugar.